On July 9, 2014, the Second Circuit issued a decision in United States v. Park, 13-4142-CR, reversing an EDNY decision sentencing a defendant to probation rather than imprisonment “based solely on its belief that the government could not afford the cost of incarceration during a so-called “government shut-down.”
In Park, the defendant pled guilty to one count of tax evasion. The defendant had prior convictions, but the EDNY sentenced the defendant to probation rather than imprisonment, explaining:
I would probably give a period of incarceration if not for the financial pressures that the Court has, the court system and the government has. Especially low-level federal employees at the present time. And we really can’t afford the luxury of paying another $28,000 to keep this person in jail under the circumstances . . . .
The Second Circuit reversed, explaining:
[W]e conclude that the District Court committed procedural error in imposing a term of probation in lieu of imprisonment for two reasons. First, the only sentencing factor the District Court deemed relevant was the cost of incarceration to the government and the economic problems allegedly caused by the government shut-down. . . . The Court therefore committed procedural error by refusing to consider the § 3553(a) factors in deciding what is an appropriate sentence.
Second, and equally problematic, is that the cost of incarceration to the government—the Court’s sole justification for imposing a term of probation rather than incarceration—is not a relevant sentencing factor under the applicable statutes. [B]ased on the plain language of § 3553(a), no sentencing factor can reasonably be read to encompass the cost of incarceration. Nor does the statute permit the sentencing court to balance the cost of incarceration against the sentencing goals enumerated in § 3553(a).
(Internal quotations and citations omitted) (emphasis added). The Second Circuit went on to hold that not only was the sentence procedurally unreasonable, it also was–based on the record as it stood–substantively unreasonable, given the defendant’s conduct and prior convictions.
In Halloway v. United States, No. 01-CV-1017 (E.D.N.Y. May 14, 2014), Judge John Gleeson pressured the government to agree to reopen the sentencing of a defendant who had rejected a plea bargain of 130-147 months for stealing three cars at gunpoint and after losing at trial was sentenced to 57 years in prison. The disparity in the terms offered by the plea bargain and the post-conviction sentencing resulted from a practice known as “stacking,” whereby the defendant received the consecutive mandatory minimum penalties for all three violations of 18 U.S.C. § 924(c) for gun possession. As noted in the opinion, the Sentencing Commission has asked Congress to amend Section 924(c) to eliminate the practice of stacking, so that increased mandatory minimums apply only to prior convictions as opposed to multiple violations of the same statute in the same indictment.
Judge Gleeson noted that this almost 20-year-old case illustrates some of the problems that have “plagued” the federal criminal justice system: “(1) the excessive severity of sentences, (2) racial disparity in sentencing, and (3) prosecutors’ use of ultraharsh mandatory minimum provisions to annihilate a defendant who dare to go to trial.” Slip op. 1. Judge Gleeson cited statistical studies finding that black men like defendant have long been disproportionately subjected to stacking of Section 924(c) counts. Turning to the defendant in this case, Judge Gleeson noted that during his 19-year imprisonment in Florida (which has kept him from seeing his five children and eight grandchildren whom he’s never seen), defendant has tried to better himself by completing numerous wellness and educational programs.
A year earlier, Judge Gleeson had requested the United States Attorney to consider exercising discretion and agree to an order vacating two or more of defendant’s Section 924(c) convictions so that he could be resentenced. The government declined, but suggested that defendant might be eligible for a presidential pardon. In response, Judge Gleeson noted that DOJ policy regarding clemency applications disqualifies inmates who have committed crimes of violence, which made it unlikely that defendant could receive executive clemency.
In conclusion, Judge Gleeson renewed his request to the United States Attorney to reconsider its decision not to agree to vacate two or more of defendant’s convictions. Should the government again refuse to agree to reopen the sentencing, Judge Gleeson indicated that he may take matters into his own hands by addressing defendant’s pending application to reopen his collateral challenge to his conviction as the “extraordinary” penalty in this case “may warrant further briefing on the constitutional issues raised by such a use of prosecutorial power.” Slip op. 5. Judge Gleeson also noted that although he had earlier rejected a claim of ineffective assistance of counsel, he “may direct a closer inspection of that issue as well” should the government not reconsider its decision not to reopen defendant’s sentencing. Id.